Electronic Journal of Biotechnology ISSN: 0717-3458
  © 2001 by Universidad Católica de Valparaíso -- Chile
Vol. 4 No. 2, Issue of August 15, 2001
 

Table 2. Wheat transformation by particle bombardment.

Reference

Target tissue

Promoter/reporter

Selectable marker

Comment

Wang et al. 1988

Cell suspension

Adh1/gus

-

Transient expression

Oard et al. 1990

Leaf base
Apical tissue

Adh1/gus
35S/ gus

-

Transient expression (air gun apparatus)

Chibbar et al. 1991

Immature embryo

35S/cat
35S/gus

-

Transient expression

Daniell et al. 1991

Leaves, Immature embryo or Anther derived calli

35S/ gus Double psbA/gus

nptII

-

Transient expression of the gus gene. First report of foreign gene expression in a monocot chloroplast

Shimada et al. 1991

Pollen embryos

35S/gus

-

Transient expression

Vasil et al. 1991

Cell suspension

E35S/gus

nptII, EPSPS

Generation of stable transformed callus lines expressing the marker genes

Vasil et al. 1992

Embryogenic callus (5-7 month old)

Adh1/gus

bar

Stable transformation, production of basta resistant fertile transgenic plants.

Perl et al. 1992

Scutellar calli

Act1/gus

-

Enhanced transient expression was observed when silver thiosulphate and Ca(NO3)2 was used in place of CaCl2

Vasil et al. 1993

Immature embryo, embryogenic calli (1-2 month old)

Adh1/gus
Ubi/gus
35S/ gus

bar

Stable transformation. Generation of flowering transgenic plant in 7-9 months

Weeks et al. 1993

Callus derived from immature embryo

Ubi/gus

bar

Stable transformation producing nine independent lines of fertile transgenic wheat

Becker et al. 1994

Scutellar tissue of immature embryos

Act1/gus

bar

Stable transformation and Mendelian segregation of the transgene

Iglesias et al.1994

Embryonic meristem

Act1/gus
35S/gus

-

Transient expression in meristem cells, which is 10 fold less than the surrounding tissues(microtargetting).

Takumi et al. 1994

Cell lines

35S/gus
35S-35S/gus
Adh /gus
Act1/gus

-

Highest level of transient expression was observed by rice Act1 promoter among all the promoter/intron combinations tested

Loeb and Reynolds,1994

Microspore-derived embryoids

Ubi/gus

bar

Transient expression, detection of GUS expression in haploid plants 5 weeks post-bombardment.

Nehra et al. 1994

Isolated scutella, Scutellum callus

35S/gus
Act1/gus

bar, nptII

Stable transformation and mendelian inheritance of the transgenes.

Zhou et al. 1995

Immature embryo

35S (duplicated) Ubi1

CP4, GOX

 

Stable transformation of wheat. The successful use of glyphosate tolerant CP4 and GOX genes as selectable markers.

Altpeter et al. 1996a

Immature embryo

Ubi1/gus

bar

Accelerated production of transgenic wheat (8-9 weeks time for generation of transgenic plants)

Altpeter et al. 1996b

Immature embryo

Ubi1/gus

bar

Integration and expression of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunit 1Ax1 in wheat

Blechl and Anderson, 1996

Immature embryo

Dy10

bar

Transformation of wheat with a modified HMW glutenin subunit gene under native regulatory elements

Ortiz et al.1996

Immature embryo calli

35S/gus

hpt, bar,

Hygromycin resistance as an efficient selctable marker for wheat stable transformation

Takumi and Shimada, 1996

Immature scutellum tissue

35S/gus
Act1/gus

bar

Successful cotransformation of the gus and bar genes . The authors reported the influence of culture duration on the transformation efficiency of the scutellum tissue

De Block et al. 1997

Embryogenic calli

35S

bar

Engineering of nuclear male sterility in wheat by introduction of the barnase gene under the control of tapetum-specific promoter

Lonsdale et al. 1998

Scutellar calli

Ubi1/luciferase

bar

Stable transformation of wheat by employing luciferase as a reporter gene to identify the transition from transient to stable expression

Barro et al. 1998

Scutellar tissue

Ubi/gus
Act1/gus
35S

bar
nptII

Low copy number and simple integration patterns in transgenic lines. This report investigated on the influence of auxins on the transformation of wheat

Leckband and Lorz, 1998

Immature embryos

Vst1/gus 35S

pat

Transformation of a stilbene synthase gene of Vitis vinifera (Vst1) for increased fungal resistance

Witrzens et al. 1998

Cultured immature embryo

Act1/gus

Ubi/ bar nptII

Generation of stably transformed plants with bar and nptII as the selectable marker. No transgenic plant was obtained with the hpt gene

Altpeter et al. 1999

Immature embryos

Ubi

bar

Transformation of a barley trypsin inhibitor gene into wheat for increased resistance to insects

Bliffeld et al. 1999

Isolated scutella

Act1 Ubi1

bar

Transformation of a barley seed chitinase gene into wheat for incresed resistance to powdery mildew disease.

Chawla et al. 1999a; Chawla et al. 1999b

Scutellum

35S/ (Bperu and C1) Act1

bar

Use of anthocyanin regulatory genes as a reporter for stable transformation of wheat

Chen et al. 1999

Immature embryos

Ubi 35S

hpt

Transformation of a rice thaumatin like protein into wheat for enhanced resistance to scab caused by Fusarium.

Harvey et al. 1999

Scutellar calli

Ubi1/luciferase

bar

Use of tissue culture regenerated plants as a source of explants resulted in a significant increase in the transformation efficiency

Ingram et al. 1999

Microspore- derived embryo

Ubi/gus

bar

Transient expression

Srivastava et al. 1999

Immature embryos

Act1 Ubi1

bar

Generation of single copy transgenic wheat based on the use of a strategy based on site-specific recombination of Cre-lox system

Stoger et al. 1999

Immature embryos

Rss1 Ubi1

bar

Expression of the insecticidal lectin from Galanthus nivalis in transgenic wheat plants for increased insect resistance

Takumi et al. 1999

Immature embryo

35S Act1 Ubi

bar

Development of transposon tagging system in wheat by transformation of maize activator (Ac) element and transformation of dissociation (Ds) element in transgenic lines expressing Ac.

Uze et al. 1999

Cultured immature embryo

Ubi/gus

Ubi/bar

Highest transformation efficiencies was obtained with linearized single stranded and double stranded plasmids

Bieri et al. 2000

Scutellum derived calli

Act1

bar

Introduction of a barley seed ribosome-inactivating protein for enhanced fungal resistance

Jordan, 2000

Immature embryos

Act1/gfp 35S

nptII

Green fluorescent protein as a visual marker for wheat transformation

Sivamani et al. 2000

Immature embryos

Ubi

bar

Transformation of a barley gene (HVA1) encoding a late embryogenesis abundant protein into wheat for tolerance to drought stress

Zhang et al. 2000

Immature embryos

Ubi

bar

Stable transformation and expression of bar and the bacterial ribonuclease gene.

Abbreviations:
Act1: rice actin promoter
Adh1: alcohol dehydrogenase 1 promoter
bar and pat: encodes a phosphinothricin acetyl transferase
Bperu and C1: regulatory elements of anthocyanin biosynthesis
cat: chloramphenicol acetyl transferase
Dy10: an high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) gene sequence containing the promoter and start site
gus: encodes b -glucuronidase
gfp: green fluorescent protein
hpt: encodes hygromycin phosphotransferase
nptII: encodes neomycin phosphotransferase
psbA: promoter fragment from pea chloroplast genome
35S: Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter
E35S: enhanced 35S promoter
Ubi1: maize ubiquitin promoter
Rss1: Rice sucrose synthase 1 promoter
Vst1: promoter of Vitis stilbene synthase gen


Supported by UNESCO / MIRCEN network