Electronic Journal of Biotechnology ISSN: 0717-3458
  © 1999 by Universidad Católica de Valparaíso -- Chile
Vol. 2 No. 3, Issue of December 15, 1999


Table 3. Control, Preventive and Monitoring Activities

Activity - Description

Australia Group

  • Chaired by Australia, the "Australia Group" was formed in 1984 as a result of CW use in the Iran-Iraq War. Its monitoring actions dealing with the exports of dual-use chemicals and biological equipment complement measures in support of the 1925 Geneva protocol, the 1972 Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention and the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention. There are presently 30 members of the Group, including: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, and the European Community Commission (Observer).

  • Export Controls on Materials Used in the Manufacture of Chemical and Biological Weapons*

    - Control List of Dual-Use Chemicals: Commercial and Military Application

    e.g. 1) Thioglycol for plastics and CW mustard gas

    2) Arsenic trichloride for ceramics and CW Lewisite

    - Control List of Dual-Use Chemicals Manufacturing Facilities and Equipment, and Related Technology


    e.g. 1) Reaction Vessels, storage tankers

    2) Valves, Toxic Gas Monitoring Systems and Detectors

    - Control List of Dual-Use Biological Equipment for Export Control

    e.g. 1) Fermentors (100L capacity and above)

    2) Centrifugal Separators

    - Control Core List of Biological Agents ** comprised of

    1) Viruses (20), rickettsiae (4), bacteria (13)

    2) GMOs containing nucleic acid sequences associated with pathogenicity or coding for toxins*** in the core list of micro-organisms

    - Warning List**** comprised of

    1) Viruses (8), bacteria** (4), GMOs and toxins***

    - List of Animal Pathogens for Export Control** comprised of

    1) Viruses (15), and Mycoplasma mycoides, GMOs and Fungi (6)

    - List of Biological Agents for Inclusion in Awareness Raising Guidelines

    1) Bacteria (2), Fungi (2), Virus (1), and GMOs.


Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology

  • Multidisciplinary and international in concept and operation, APIC focuses on advancing, world-wide, healthcare epidemiology and preventing illness and spread of infection

  • In partnership with the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has devised an APIC/CDC Bioterrorism Readiness Plan: A Template for Healthcare Facilities. The plan focuses on responses to bioterrorism built around the use of anthrax, botulism toxin, plague and smallpox, post-exposure community management, precise prophylactic decontamination measures specific for the type of each biological threats in use, and development of appropriate healthcare control and bio-defence measures to counteract and neutralise future bio-based terroristic attacks that could lead to the onset of epidemics. Diagnostic laboratory facilities and implementation of surveillance and control measures, on a conventional war scale are limited. In fact, preliminary planning in devising effective measures have revealed that stockpiles of vaccines antibiotics as effective bio-defence shields to restrict mass casualties, and contain potential epidemics are either inadequate or non-existent e.g. as witnessed in the tragedies in former Zaire, Rwanda and Kosovo.


Applied Science and Analysis, Inc.

  • Established in 1983, this US-based international organisation,

    1) specialises in nuclear, biological and chemical defence world-wide, and provides expertise in:

    - chemical and/or biological warfare defence

    - environmental management and protection

    - public health preparedness and risk assessment

    - monitoring of nature, behaviour, mobility and fate of undesirable biological and chemical agents

    2) Disseminates knowledge and information on topics such as:

    - Biological Warfare and Vaccines, and the Use of Toxic Chemicals as warfare agents

    - Detection and decontamination protocols for chemical and biological agents and toxins

    - Chemical and biological medicinal treatment and emergency responses to agrochemical and industrial accidents and disasters.


Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

  • The Agency with support of the US Department of Health and Human Services provides technical assistance on:

    - Methodologies and protocols in mitigating and preventing exposure to hazardous substances into the environment

    - developing responses to counter chemical-based terrorism using chemicals as skin-irritant, and choking agents

    - decontamination and neutralisation of oil-improvised incendiaries detrimental to agriculture and the environment

    - hazards and risks posed by the transportation of toxic chemical residues, and infectious clinical and domestic wastes.

Bradford-SIPRI project

The joint University of Bradford-Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) Chemical and Biological Warfare Project

  • Project aims through pooling of their Internet resources in providing a better dissemination of information on the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention, the 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and allied chemical and biological warfare issues. On-line resources involve use of the Bradford and SIPRI databases concerning bioweapons and chemical weapons proliferation, containment and disarmament. Engaged in:

    - Reporting of outbreaks of Diseases as part of Confidence- Building Measures in accordance with the WHO International Health Regulations (IHR - see also under FAS) and the Pan American Sanitary Code administered by the Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO). The notifiable diseases are:

    a) acute epidemic poliomyelitis
    b) cholera
    c) epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis
    d) epidemic lethargic encephalitis
    e) influenza or epidemic la grippe
    f) plague
    g) smallpox
    h) typhoid and paratyphoid fevers
    i) typhus
    j) yellow fever

    - Reporting of outbreaks of Annual Diseases to the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) in accordance with the International Annual Health Code (IAH), and the International Aquatic Annual Health Code (IAAH). Notifiable diseases are:

    a) 16 different terrestrial animal and bird diseases under the Animal Code:

    - African horse sickness
    - African swine fever
    - Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia
    - Foot and mouth disease
    - Highly contagious avian influenza
    - Hog cholera (classical swine fever)
    - Lumpy skin disease
    - Newcastle disease
    - Peste des petits ruminants
    - Rift Valley fever
    - Rinderpest
    - Sheep pox and goat pox
    - Swine vesicular disease
    - Vesicular stomatitis, and

b) 10 aquatic animal diseases under the Aquatic Animal Code:

- Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis
- Haplosporidiosis
- Infectious haematopoietic necrosis
- Marteiliosis
- Mikrocystosis
- Oncorhynchus masou virus disease (synonym: salmonid herpesvirus type 2 disease)
- Perkinsosis
- Spring viraemia of carp, and
- Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (synonym: egtved disease)

- Surveillance of plant disease outbreaks in accordance with the non-mandatory International Plant Protection Convention.


Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute

  • Activities focus on projects and programmes dealing with:

    - Non-proliferation and the elimination of biological and chemical weapons

    - international co-operation in controlling Chemical and Biological Terrorism

    - containing the development of biological weapons arising from the misuse of technology resulting from

    - globalisation of a co-ordinated policy of unilateral technology denial

    - developing a multilateral technology management strategic system that blends in confidence

    -building measures the concerns for technology protection with the benefits of technology sharing

    - responding to the challenge of conserving health as a defence rampant in the maintenance of global security by focusing on global trends:

    a) emerging and re-emerging diseases, overburdened and outdated health infrastructures, and new epidemics

    b) increasing resort to biological aspects for use in biological warfare and bioterrorism

    c) impact of disease on population dynamics, regional and international markets, and by consequence on economic and political stability.


Chemical and Biological Defence Information Analysis Centre

  • Serving as a focal point for the US Department of Defence Chemical and Biological Defence Information Services, CBIAC provides, on a limited basis, publicly accessible information, through its web-site and the CBIAC Newsletter technical information and updates on:

    - The Progress and Prospects in an overview of the Biological Weapons Convention

    - Next Generation Technologies to counter proliferation e.g.:

    a) Miniaturised portable mass spectro meter for field detection of chemical and biological substances

    - The Biological Integrated Detection System (BIDS) Bunker which provides for training in detecting, through air sampling and identification protocols, the presence of biological agents in war condition

    - Developing, testing and evaluating

    a) Prepared readiness, and

    b) Emergency response to threats of biological warfare, and bioterrorism

    - Developing, testing, evaluating and maintaining:

    a) High-quality easily accessible equipment and accessories for use in prepared readiness and emergency response operations

    b) Developing computer-based instruction manuals and exportable training kits for use on-site field operations.


Chemical and Biological Medical Treatment Symposium-Industry

  • Series of specialised symposia organised by Applied Science and Analysis, USA, since 1994 with focus on medical treatment for poisoning from chemical and biological agents, agrochemical, pesticides, and industrials chemicals. CBMTS meetings deal with:

    - the scientific and technical emerging responses required from the chemical, biological, pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries in times of war, terrorist acts, sabotage and accidents

    - epidemiological surveillance an emergency management methodologies when encountering biological warfare and bioterrorism

    - eco-terrorism

    - incoming threats of bioweapons and possible medical responses in countries in transition

    - assessment of health impacts of war, bioterrorism, accidents, and outbreak of infectious diseases.


Centre for Non-proliferation Studies

  • CNS, the world's largest non-governmental organisation combating the spread of weapons of mass destruction, is based in the Monterey Institute of International Studies, California, USA, with offices in Washington D.C., and Almaty, Kazakhstan

    It is engaged in a variety of subjects such as:

    - Strengthening the Biological Weapons Convention: Lessons from the UNSCOM experience*****

    - International Organisations and Non-proliferation project (IONP) Initiated in 1992, IONP emphasises:

    a) the training of the next generation of policy experts in the field of non-proliferation and its varied aspects concerning ecological and chemical warfare

    b) the development of practical options for the updating and reinforcement of review and monitoring processes,

    c) reinforcement of the capacity of international non-proliferation organisations in curbing and eliminating the proliferation of weapons of mass

    d) destruction, and inclusive of biological and chemical ones

    e) their valuable mediating role in promoting substantive and sustainable dialogue between governmental parties, and non-governmental sectors on the benefits of non-proliferation of mass destruction weapons and arms control

    Projects such as:

    - Chemical and Biological Weapons Non-proliferation Project (CBWNP) founded in 1996, monitors, in collaboration with the Centre for Global Research of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the proliferation of chemical and biological weapons (CBW), developing strategies and confidence-building measures to create disincentives for production and distribution of such weapons. The project has focused through workshops on:

    a) Sampling and analysis

    b) Inspection procedures, and

    c) Investigations of suspicious outbreaks of disease, and specialised reports such as:

    a) The Threat of Deliberate Disease in the 21st Century

    b) Industry's Role, Concerns and Interests in the Negotiation of a BWC Compliance Protocol

    c) Man Versus Microbe: The Negotiations to strengthen the Biological Weapons Convention.



Economic Commission for Europe

  • Safety guidelines in biotechnology, issued in 1995 within the framework of ECE activities that originate from the 1986 Vienna Meeting of Representatives of the Participating States of the Conference on Security and Co-operation (CSCE) in Europe, focus on the exchange of information on laws and regulations relating to the safety aspects of genetic engineering. Contributions are from 30 countries in Europe and North America.


European Federation of Biotechnology

  • In co-operation with Austrian governmental authorities and through its Working Party on Safety in Biotechnology

    - Organised international discussion forum, (May, 1998, Vienna) on A strengthened Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention - Potential Implications for Biotechnology with focus on:

    a) Overview of Biological and Toxin Weapons

    b) Historical and Political Perspectives of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention

    c) Lessons arising from the experience of the UNSCOM for Biological Arms Control

    d) The verification regime of the Chemical Weapons Convention and its implications for biotechnology

    e) Regulatory controls for Human and Animal Pharmaceutical Products

    f) Developments in Biosafety Regulations and Controls amongst several other relevant themes



European Union

  • Designed in the mid-1980s, the EU regulatory framework covers:

    - contained use of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs)

    - deliberate release of GMOs

    - protection of workers to risks and biological agents during work

    - product legislation (medicinal, and plant protection products, novel foods, feed additives, seeds, etc.)

    - Intellectual property protection

    - The Eurosurveillance bulletin communicable diseases deals with surveillance networks supported by the European Union, and co-ordinated by the European Centre for the Epidemiological Surveillance of SIDA, St Maurice, France, and the Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, U.K.

    - Disseminates printed and electronic data emphasising the different national approaches to prevention of communicable diseases, results of outbreak investigations, and measures to minimise further outbreaks and occurrences.

    - reports on the European Union's efforts to:

    (a) increase the exchange of information in public healthcare and epidemiology

    (b) promote the development of national networks for surveillance of communicable diseases in Europe


Extension Toxicology Network

  • A co-operative effort of the Universities of California-Davis, Oregon State, Michigan State, Cornell and Idaho, Exotonet issues toxicology information briefs and information profiles concerning bioaccumulation; carcigenicity; cutaneous toxicity; toxicological dose-response relationships; entry and fate of chemicals in humans and the environment and risk assessment.


Food and Agricultural Organisation

- Administers Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides

- Drafts Code of Conduct for plant biotechnology as it affects the conservation and utilisation of genetic resources

  • Emerging Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases, (EMPRES)

    - Established in 1993, as a FAO Priority Programme, EMPRES is designed to prevent, control, and eliminate animal and plant diseases that:

    (a) easily spread across national borders and boundaries

    (b) jeopardize food security and endanger national economies and international trade in livestock and animal products

    (c) necessitate use of early warning systems to control emerging or evolving diseases

    - Regional Monitoring System for plant and animal pests on a priority basis Priorities in monitoring are: contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot and mouth disease (FMD), Newcastle disease, rinderpest, and rift valley fever. No plant diseases are encountered as priorities.

  • Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture (GIEWS)

  • - Provides assessment of threats to the current food situation, world-wide; highlights major food emergencies, threats to food security by plant pests, and livestock diseases.

  • Special Programme for Food Security (SPFS)

  • - Designed to combat food insecurity as a weapon in destabilising the economies of law-income food deficit countries.



Federation of American Scientists

  • Originally founded in 1945 as the Federation of Atomic Scientists by members of the Manhattan Project who produced the first atomic bomb, the FAS focuses on the use of science, technology and policy for global security through:

    - Conduction, since 1989 of a Biological and Toxins Weapons (BTW) verification programme which focuses on:

    a) development of confidence-building political and technical measures for purposes of verification

    b) arrangement of all signatures to article, in spirit and action, by the terms of the BTW Convention

    c) development of a legally building protocol that prevents further proliferation of biotechnological applications for use by military in war

    d) development of network of early warning sites for monitoring emergency infectious diseases in co-operation with WHO

    e) emphasises the important contribution of WHO's Revised International Health regulations (IHR) to the compliance and verification regime, also referred to as VEREX, of the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC).

  • Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases (PROMED) involving world-wide e-mail consultations, is reflected in consultative conference between experts in human, animal and plant health. Since 1994, over 15,000 experts in some 150 countries participate in PROMED conferencing by e-mail on a daily basis the identity of the following users:

    - World Health Organisation (WHO)

    - UN Agencies engaged in humanitarian and relief work

    - Laboratory Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Atlanta, USA

    - Public Health Laboratory Service, UK

    - Pasteur Institutes in France (inclusive of that in Tahiti) and Vietnam

    - National Institute of Health, Japan amongst several other prestigious bodies


Henry L. Stimson Centre

The Henry Stimson Centre

  • Named after Henry L. Stimson, a distinguished individual in defence and foreign policy in service to 3 American Presidents - Taft, Hoover, and F.D. Roosvelt, the Centre a non-profit independent public institute which:

    - is engaged in meeting challenges to global and regional security and stability posed by economic, environmental and demographic influences

    - in developing problem-solving initiatives that help minimise tensions arising from insecurity fuelled by the development and proliferation of chemical and biological weapons, and

    - in inducting research analysis, education and disseminating knowledge through the following projects on:

    a) Chemical and Biological Weapons Non-proliferation

    b) New Tools Peacekeeping

    c) Training for Peacekeeping

    d) The United Nations and Peacekeeping.

    - Report 24: Biological Weapons Proliferation: Reasons for Concern, Courses of Action, January 1998 of relevance with following chapter content:

    a) The Threat of Deliberate Disease in the 21st Century (Pearson, G)******

    b) Industry's Role, Concerns, and Interests in the Negotiation of a BWC Compliance Protocol (Woollett, G.)

    c) Doubts about Confidence: The Potential Limits of Confidence-Building Measures for Biological Weapons Convention (Chevrier, M.)

    d) Verification Provisions of the Chemical Weapons Convention and Their Relevance to the Biological weapons Convention (Tucker, J.)

    e) Man Versus Microbe: The Negotiations to Strengthen the Biological Weapons Convention (Smithson, A.E.)



Harvard Sussex Programme (HSP) on Chemical and Biological Warfare Armament and Arms Limitation

  • A joint activity since 1991, of Harvard University (USA) and the University of Sussex (U.K.), HSP:

    - conducts and sponsors scholarly research dealing with CBW

    - publishes the quarterly journal - The CBW Conventions Bulletin (earlier known as Chemical Weapons Convention Bulletin)

    - convenes, since 1993, the Pugwash Study Group on Implementation of the Chemical and Biological Weapons Convention

    - collaborates with OPCW (see below) in the provision of training activities

    - possesses well-developed resource database concerning:

    a) Chemical and biological warfare (CBW)

    b) disabling chemicals

    c) the Australian Group, Pugwash conferences

    d) destruction of chemical weapons

    e) CBW in the Middle East, Africa

    f) Control of dual-use biotechnologies in manufacturing of CBW weapons.

    - proposes Draft Convention To Prohibit Biological and Chemical Weapons under International Criminal Law (1998)

    - proposes Draft Convention on The Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Developing, Producing, Acquiring, Stockpiling, Retaining, Transferring or Using Biological or Chemical Weapons (1998)

  • International Civil Aviation Organisation

    - Convention on International Civil Aviation covers:

    (a) disinsectisation of aircraft and airport health and sanitary facilities

    (b) provision of safe food and water on aircraft and at airports with proper facilities for disposal of refuse, wastes, wastewater

    (c) healthcare certificates preventing air navigation of cholera, epidemic typhus, plague and yellow fever

    - Collaborates with WHO, since aircargo trade and travel is source of new and emerging diseases in potential airborne and seaborne bioterrorism


International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

  • International Conference on the Peaceful Use of Biotechnology and the Convention on Biological Weapons (BWC), July 1998, organised by the ICGEB and the Landau Network - Centro Volta. Article 2 of the ICGEB, inter alia, provides for action "to promote international co-operation in developing and applying peaceful uses of genetic engineering and biotechnology, in particular for developing countries"

    - ICGEB provides a biosafety resource, which is a scientific bibliographic database on Biosafety and Risk Assessment in Biotechnology. Topics of concerns focus on the environmental release of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) and the risks for animal and human health (e.g. allergies and toxicity); for the environment (e.g. unpredictable gene expression); and, for agriculture e.g. alteration of nutritional values, and loss of biodiversity.


International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering

  • Established in 1959 by a group of medical engineers, physicists, doctors meeting in UNESCO, Paris, France, IFMBE, has also promoted activities in medical physics, and cellular and chemical engineering in improving the quality of life and protecting the environment. Emphasis is also given to development of healthcare technology as a component of the emergency response to environmental disasters.


International Maritime Organisation

- Issuance of IMO guidelines for preventing the introduction of unwanted aquatic organisms and pathogens from ship's ballast water and sediment discharges

- Joint IMO/WHO research on ballast water as a medium in the spread of bacterial and viral epidemic-disease organisms

- Species protocols and type of packaging for authorised transmission of biological perishable materials


International Resources on the Release of Organisms into the Environment

  • Initiated by UNEP through the framework of the Microbial Strain Data Network, (MSDN) in 1990, IRRO is designated to function as:

    - A resource that feeds, and provides technical inputs of support for activities in biotechnology, biodiversity, bioremediation, etc.

    - An electric network facilitating access to microbial data resources maintained in different regions of the world

    - A forum for the dissemination and exchange of information on the kinds of relevant organisms and their characteristics

Johns Hopkins Centre (CBS)

Johns Hopkins Centre for Civilian Biodefence Studies

  • The Centre focuses on development of national and international medical practices and policies coupled to the updating of public infrastructures in protecting the civilian population against bioterrorism.


Mendoza Commitment

  • Argentina, Brazil and Chile in Chile in 1991, the 3 states have agreed to:

    - keep their territories free from biological and chemical weapons

    - not develop, produce, obtain, stockpile, transfer or use biological or chemical weapons

    - to engage in the monitoring of biological or chemical agents that have the potential for use in biological or chemical weaponization


Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

  • Established in 1998 to achieve the objectives of the Chemical Weapons Convention; to ensure the implementation of its provisions, to provide a forum for verification of compliance with the Convention's protocols and to engender consultation and co-operation amongst the States party to the Convention e.g. training course in May, 1999 on Medical Defence against Chemical Weapons, Tehran, Iran. Attention is also focused on the promotion of free trade in chemicals, and on international co-operation and exchange of scientific and technical information in the field of chemical purposes for peaceful purposes.


Physicians for Human Rights

  • Since 1986, PHR, an organisation of health professionals, scientists and private citizens has mobilised its medical and forensic resources to:

    - investigate and prevent violations of humanitarian law

    - improve health and sanitary environments and facilities in detention centres and prisons

    - provide medical care during times of war involving the use of all types of arms and weapons

    - investigate violations of international conventions in force prohibiting the misuse of harmful substances and agents that erode human physical and psychological health

    - investigate, research and document the use of mustard gas in the Anfal campaign tear gas in Southeast Asia, and poisonous agents elsewhere in regional conflicts.


Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America

  • Committed to the discovery, development and market production of breakthrough medicines to conserve human and improve the quality of life, PhRMA has promoted scientific and regulatory activities that focus on:

    - Highlighting the dangers of proliferation of biological and chemical warfare agents

    - Handling and Disposal of Hazardous Materials and Toxic Wastes

    - Surveillance of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    - The Threats of Bioterrorism.


Centre for Policy Studies in Russia

  • Established in 1994, PIR focuses on international security, aims control, and civil-military issues. Research studies focus, amongst other subjects, on:

    - Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Terrorism

    - Educational programme on Arms Control as Non-proliferation

    - Sensitive Exports and Exports Control Measures

    - Destruction of Chemical Weapons in Russia

    - Analysis of implementation of the Chemical Weapons, and Biological weapons Conventions.



  • The village of Pugwash, Nova Scotia, Canada is associated in the all Pugwash activities since 1957 when it hosted the first conference of 22 eminent scientists from Australia, Austria, Canada, China, France, Japan, Poland, the U.K., the USA, and Russia (then USSR), to focus attention on the threat to civilisation arising from the advent of thermonuclear weapons

  • Plays an important role in providing an international forum in bringing together policy analysts and advisers for in-depth discussions on: chemical and biological weapons; crisis management in the Developing countries; promotion of sustainable development, and conservation of the environment against the threats of nuclear armoury and bioterrorist attacks

  • Pugwash Conferences awarded Einstein Gold Medal by UNESCO in 1989 in recognition of their contribution to culturing, promoting and helping sustain peace world-wide through efforts aimed at reducing the deployment of weaponry of mass destruction and then eventual elimination

  • Workshop, in 1988, on Public Health Systems in Developing Countries, in Habana, Cuba, focuses on the erosion of human resources as a result of the interactive equation between poverty and prevalence of infectious diseases; and on threat of emerging diseases e.g. anthrax and small pox that have been contained or eliminated, but which could result from reintroduction as a consequence of the use of the corresponding microbial agents in bacterial weapons.



The Regional Animal Disease Surveillance and Control Network (RADISCON)

  • Designated for North Africa and the Middle East and the Middle East and the Arab Peninsula is a joint FAO/IFAD activity concerning 29 countries as follows:

    - Maghreb/Sahel Sub-region: Algeria, Chad, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco Niger and Tunisia

    - Middle East Sub-region: Egypt, Palestinian Authority, Israel, Jordan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria and Turkey

    - Arab Gulf Sub-region: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates

  • - Horn of Africa/Others Sub-region: Ethiopia, Sudan. Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea and Yemen

  • The network, since June 1996, reinforces methodologies in veterinary investigation laboratory diagnostic and information services, through regional co-operation, and assistance to the Animal Disease surveillance Systems of the network member countries. As a result of such activities, preparedness efforts and emergency responses to potential bio-based disasters are continuously updated.

  • The value of FAO's different surveillance systems is exemplified in the swift action undertaken, to contain the outbreak of the debilitating FMD virus amongst beef cattle in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia, through the RADISCON information network, the FAO/OIE World FMD Reference Laboratory, Pirbright, U.K., the EMPRES network (see above), and the Rome based European Commission for the Control of FMD.


RIO Group

  • Established in 1986, and with the membership of Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, the RIO Group:

    - Established in 1986, and with the membership of Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, the RIO Group:

    - promotes the establishment of a weapons-of-mass-destruction-free zone in Latin America and the Caribbean

    - monitors the acquisition of dual-use technology and its transfers

    - prohibits the introduction of chemical and biological weapons (of mass destruction) that threaten regional security and co-operation as a result of an initiative - the Cartagena Declaration launched by Peru in 1991, and adopted by Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela


Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)

  • The main areas of SIPRI's research are:

    - Implementation of the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention

    - Developments concerning disarmament of biological weapons

    - CBW terrorism

    - CBW demilitarisation and regional concerns regarding armament and disarmament issues

  • SIPRI conducts many research and academic activities. Amongst these is the Chemical and Biological Warfare (CBW) project which began 30 years ago in 1966, focuses on all developments regarding chemical and biological weapons. These include establishing of efficient and verifiable disarmament and use by terrorist and criminal groups. Other activities are:

    - Development of an Internet-based educational module on weapons proliferation

    - Acceleration of biological weapons disarmament

    - Monitoring of technology transfer concerning knowledge, equipment and materials within the remit of the Biological and Toxins Weapons (BTWC) and the Chemical Weapons Conventions (CWC)

    - Biological and Chemical Weapons Disarmament in the Commonwealth of Independent States

    - Conduction of SIPRI Chemical and Biological Warfare studies amongst which are:

    a) The International Organisation for Chemical Disarmament (IOCD), No. 8, 1987

    b) Verification of Dual-Use of Chemicals under the Chemical Weapons Convention: The Case of Thiodigylcol, No. 13, 1991

    c) Control of Dual-Threat Agents: The Vaccines for Peace Programme, No. 15, 1994.


United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation

  • International Forum on Possible Consequences of the misuse of Biological Sciences, December, 1997, Como, Italy in collaboration with ICGEB, and Landau Network - Centro Volta

    - Supports programme on Toxic waste management with special emphasis on biosystems at International Chemical Studies (ICCS), Ljubljana, Slovenia, 1998

    - International School for Molecular Biology and Microbiology established at Hebrew University of Jerusalem with motto Science for Peace, and in which framework programme activities are carried out with UNESCO support (1994/1996)

    - Through its Field Office in Venice, UNESCO supports and endorses Genoa Declaration on Science and Society issued in 1995 by representatives of national and international scientific academies emphasising the role of science in constructive dialogue between different cultures, and as powerful antidote to intolerance, and to ideological and racial barriers

  • United Nations Environment Programme

    - Issues London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information and Chemicals in International Trade



United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research

  • Established in 1980 as an autonomous institute

    - to carry out independent research on disarmament and allied issues concerning international security

    - to provide relevant data on problems pertaining to international security, the arms race and disarmament in all areas, with special emphasis in the nuclear field, for purposes of facilitating greater security for all states, and economic and social development of all peoples

    - to promote informed participation by all states in disarmament efforts e.g. "exchange of information on all outbreaks of infectious diseases and similar occurrences caused by toxins that seem to deviate from the normal pattern as regards type, development, place, or time of occurrence. If possible, the information provided would include, as soon as it is available, data on the type of disease, appropriate area affected, and number of cases."

    - to improve international cooperation in the field of peaceful bacteriological activities through a conference of participants in projects and publications dealing with

    a) Biological Warfare and Disarmament: Problems, Perspectives, Possible Solutions

    b) The Transfer of Sensitive Technologies and the Future of Control Regimes with a focus on:

    - Identifying Tomorrow's Key Technologies in Weapon Systems, and in Weapons Components

    - The Transfer of Dual-Use Technologies: The Missing Link Between Security and Development

    - Cooperative Technology Transfer Controls: Forging New Approaches to Solve Old Problems

  • United Nations Industrial Development Organisations

    - Pioneers in 1987, the institution of ICGEB as UNIDO project

    - Gives support, in 1991, to establishment of the UNIDO/WHO/FAO/UNEP Informal Working Group on Biosafety

    - Issues, in 1992, Voluntary Code of Conduct for the Release of Organisms into the Environment

    - Creates in 1995, Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS) and releases BINAS News in collaboration with ICGEB


United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM)

  • The Commission with a membership of 21 Member States: Australia, Belgium, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, UK, USA, and Venezuela, targets the elimination and destruction of suspected stockpiles of anthrax spores, botulinum toxin and aflatoxin that were employed for weaponization in aerial bombs and SCUD missile warheads prior to the onset of the Gulf War.


Finnish Institute for Verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention

  • Initiated in 1973 as a chemical Weapons project, and as independent institute of the University of Helsinki, VERIFIN:

    - functions as the Finnish Authority for the Chemical Weapons Convention

    - helps in the development of analytic methods for the disarmament of chemical weapons

    - promotes postgraduate research and teaching concerning the disarmament and elimination of chemical weapons

    - co-operation with OPCW and the UN in the monitoring of compliance with the Chemical Weapons, and Biological Weapons Convention.


WASENNAAR Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies

  • The Wassenaar Arrangement of 33 countries and whose secretariat is based in Vienna, Austria came into force in 1995 as the successor to the Co-ordinating Committee for Multilateral Exports (COCOM) which was established in 1950, and is comprised of the original 17 COCOM members: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, UK and USA, and since 1995, with the addition of Argentina, Austria, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, New Zealand, Poland, Romania, the Russian Federation, the Slovak Republic, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, and Ukraine with the following goals:

    - Transparency in the transfer of dual-use goods and technologies

    - Minimization of destabilising stockpiles of such goods

    - Reinforcement of existing control regimes and conventions for weapons of mass destruction, and elimination of threats to international and regional peace and security resulting from unmonitored transfer of sensitive dual-use goods and technologies

    - Prohibition of militarisation of sensitive dual-use goods and technologies


World Health Organisation

  • In 1997, issues guidelines for the Safe Transport of Infectious Substances and Diagnostic Specimens

  • In 1998, establishes Expert Group to review and revise 1970 document: Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons.

  • In 1999, issues systematic, world-wide Action Plan and timetable to prevent reintroduction of wild polioviruses from the laboratory into the community

* Measures endorsed by G-7 Declaration on Conventional Arms Transfers. Source: Communique from the London Econommic Summit 1991, 16 July 1991.

** Except where the agent is in the form of vaccine

*** Excluding immunotoxins

**** This group of biological agents, recognised as ubiquitous are still worthy of special caution since they have been part of BW programmes in the past.

***** Duncan, A. and Johnson, K.G. 1997. The Nonproliferation Review, Vol. 4: pgs 49-54.

****** Name in parenthesis indicates the author of Chapter

Supported by UNESCO / MIRCEN network